Antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens in the Asia-Pacific region: a systematic review


BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in urinary tract infections (UTI) is a global public health problem. However, estimates of the prevalence of AMR, required for empirical treatment guidelines, are lacking for many regions. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review and summarize the available information about AMR prevalence among urinary Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the two priority uropathogens, in the Asia-Pacific region (APAC). METHODS: PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science databases were searched for articles (2008-20), following PRISMA guidelines. The prevalence of resistance was calculated and reported as point estimate with 95% CI for antimicrobial drugs recommended in WHO treatment guidelines. Data were stratified by country and surveillance approach (laboratory- or population-based surveillance). The quality of included articles was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. RESULTS: Out of 2400 identified articles, 24 studies, reporting on 11 (26.8%) of the 41 APAC countries, met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence of resistance against trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone ranged between 33% and 90%, with highest prevalence reported from Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Resistance against nitrofurantoin ranged between 2.7% and 31.4%. Two studies reported data on fosfomycin resistance (1.8% and 1.7%). Quality of reporting was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: We show very high prevalence estimates of AMR against antibiotics commonly used for the empirical treatment of UTI, in the limited number of countries in the APAC for which data are available. Novel feasible and affordable approaches that facilitate population-based AMR surveillance are needed to increase knowledge on AMR prevalence across the region.

JAC-antimicrobial resistance